Tribal warfare was a central aspect of life within and between the highland communities prior to first contact and the establishment of Australian patrols. Kora Marme observes that such conflict occurs when a wife runs away from her husband, as the husband and wife's relatives start an argument and start warfare; when there is stealing - particularly of pigs and foodstuff - with no satisfactory compensation; and when land boundaries are not followed. Aiwa Ya asserts the specific rules men must follow during periods of tribal fighting, which include no sexual interaction with their wives, no holding of children or pig's ropes, no killing of pigs and only receiving food from their wives. If they do not follow these rules, they die. Axel and Roslyn Poignant (1972: 1) record that in about 1945 the big-man Dai, once a powerful fight-leader in the Gumine district, first went to Kundiawa to ask the kiap patrol officer he had heard rumours of to come to Gumine to make peace after a terrible fight with neighbouring clans. Tribal fighting is discussed in interviews with: Donga Mau, Aiwa Ya, Kora Marme, Mathias Muru, and Graham Pople.